There are three main coronavirus pages on Mental Health Law Online:
- This page, which contains guidance about the guidance.
- The - currently there are 120.
- The - currently there are 9.
- The sub-pages which are listed on this page, eg Mental Health Tribunal and coronavirus
- The External links below, many of which are updated regularly
As of 30/4/21, all resouces in thewere categorised and listed in this summary page or its associated pages. If any documents are added to the database after that date they will automatically appear in a list immediately below:
- Mental Health Tribunal, 'Direction for disclosure of medical records to legal representatives' (27/9/21) (Added to MHLO: 2021-10-02 8:16:42 PM)
- Serjeants' Inn, 'Emma Sutton appears in a successful application concerning mental health patients' rights to have their cases heard via video conferencing in Wales as opposed to via telephone' (27/5/21) (Added to MHLO: 2021-11-12 9:15:26 PM)
- Legal Education Foundation, 'Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on tribunals: The experience of tribunal judges' (2/6/21) (Added to MHLO: 2021-12-10 10:37:59 PM)
- Celia Kitzinger and Amber Dar, '“Non-mainstream” treatments and CPR for a COVID-19 patient in intensive care' (Open Justice COP Project, 24/1/22) (Added to MHLO: 2022-01-25 10:13:32 PM)
- Mental Welfare commission for Scotland, 'Vaccination for people with mental illness, learning disabilities, dementia and associated conditions: Position statement' (14/2/22) (Added to MHLO: 2022-02-21 10:16:56 PM)
- Janet Clark, 'Evaluation of remote hearings during the COVID 19 pandemic: Research report' (HMCTS, 10/12/21) (Added to MHLO: 2022-02-24 3:52:12 PM)
- Mental Health Tribunal, 'Direction for disclosure of medical records to legal representatives and to Medical Members of the Tribunal' (17/11/21) (Added to MHLO: 2022-06-21 9:33:02 AM)
- Welsh guidance hospital managers' discharge power. Welsh Government, 'Coronavirus: guidance for Local Health Boards and Independent Hospitals in Wales exercising Hospital Managers' discharge powers under the Mental Health Act 1983' (14/4/20) — "This guidance is provided to assist Local Health Boards (LHB's) and Independent Hospitals in Wales exercising Hospital Managers’ discharge powers under the Mental Health Act 1983 (the Act) during this exceptional period."
- NHS guidance on MH law during coronavirus pandemic. NHS, 'Legal guidance for mental health, learning disability and autism, and specialised commissioning services supporting people of all ages during the coronavirus pandemic' (v2, 19/5/20) — "This guidance provides advice and support to commissioners (clinical commissioning groups [CCG] and specialised commissioning), providers (CCG commissioned and specialised commissioned), health care professionals, social workers, Approved Mental Health Professionals, local authorities, experts by experience, clinical experts, and independent chairs for Care and Education and Treatment Reviews, as well as regional NHS England and NHS Improvement colleagues, to help with the local planning already underway. The guidance will also be helpful for other individuals and partner organisations, involved in the pathways of care, for people with mental health needs, a learning disability and/or autism, including police, prisons and Immigration Removal Centres (IRCs)." The main headings are: (1) Introduction; (2) Key messages; (3) The Mental Health Act 1983 and the emergency Coronavirus Act; (4) Operational considerations for use of the MHA; (5) Guidance on using the Code of Practice during the COVID-19 pandemic period; (6) The Mental Capacity Act; (7) The Care Act; (8) Specific considerations regarding restraint, restrictive practice and the management of people who refuse to isolate; (9) Escorting patients detained under the MHA, including those on Restriction Orders (Sections 41 and 49 MHA) to and from acute general hospitals; (10) Specific considerations for specialised commissioned services; (11) Specific considerations for learning disability and autism services; (12) Specific considerations for people with dementia; (13) Specific considerations for mental health, learning disability and autism and the Criminal Justice System; (14) Application of digital technology to Mental Health Act assessments; (15) Annexes: (Annex A) Resources that have been developed to support practice in mental health; (Annex B) Mental Health Casework Section; (Annex C) COVID-19 - Escorting patients detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA) including those on Restriction Orders (Sections 41 and 49) to and from acute general hospitals; (Annex D) Guidance on using the Code of Practice during the pandemic period: (a) Section 136 assessment; (b) Approved Mental Health Professionals (AMHPs) and responsibilities of Local Authorities; (c) The role of hospital managers’ panel; (d) Mental Health Tribunal Hearings; (e) Medical Reviews of Seclusion; (f) Section 17 leave and visitors; (g) Access to Independent Mental Health Advocates (IMHAs); (h) Second Opinion Appointed Doctors service; (i) Electronic forms and electronic delivery; (Annex E) Checklist to support decision in line with the minimum standards and safeguards on the application of technology to the MHA assessments. Superseded by: NHS, 'Legal guidance for services supporting people of all ages during the coronavirus pandemic: Mental health, learning disability and autism, specialised commissioning' (v3, 30/11/20).
Ministry of Justice
- MHCS coronavirus update. Mental Health Casework Section, 'MHCS Update: Covid-19' (Dear Colleague letter, 19/3/20) — This letter explains that MHCS staff are all working from home, their policies and procedures remain the same, and the ability to deliver casework is unchanged. If staffing levels decrease: the priorities will be recalls, prison transfers, upward transfers, tribunal statements and level/downward transfers and repatriations; there might be delays in leave decisions and discharges; and conditional discharge reports (CDRs) and applications for changes of discharge conditions (unless important because of risk) will be the lowest priority.
- MHCS coronavirus guidance. Mental Health Casework Section, 'Q and A for healthcare professionals and MHCS staff' (30/3/20) — The questions are: (1) Will MHCS relax a requirement that supervisors should have face-to-face contact with patients living in the community, for conditional discharge reports? (2) What happens if a patient, who is detained in hospital, requires urgent treatment as a result of suspected COVID-19? (3) What happens if there is an urgent need to transfer a patient with suspected Covid-19 from one mental health hospital to another? (The document contains a new shorter transfer request template for use in this scenario.) (4) Is there still a requirement to submit Conditional Discharge Reports (CDRs) and Annual Statutory Reports (ASRs)? (5) How do I extend previously granted overnight leave at a community placement, to prevent the need for the patient to go back and forth between the hospital and community placement?
- MOJ coronavirus update. Ministry of Justice, 'COVID-19 Stakeholder Update' (22/3/20) — This email contains (among other things) clarification that the "key worker" category includes: advocates required to appear before a court or tribunal (remotely or in person); other legal practitioners required to support the administration of justice, including duty solicitors and lawyers and others who work on imminent or ongoing court or tribunal hearings; solicitors and barristers advising people living in institutions or deprived of their liberty. - Includes clarification of the "key worker" category
- Coronavirus advice for patients, carers and others. Mind, 'Coronavirus and your rights' (April 2020) — This web page contains links to further Mind resources on: (1) Coronavirus and social care rights; (2) Coronavirus and sectioning; and (3) Coronavirus and your mental health.
Other courts & courts generally
Those also working in other courts should check the external links for updates in their own fields, but some guidance documents appear below.
- Parole Board coronavirus guidance. Martin Jones, 'Guidance to members' (Parole Board, 20/3/20) — The guidance from the PB CEO's Twitter account is: (1) The Parole Board is considering changes to guidance, so that fewer cases are directed to oral hearing. (2) The views of the prisoner or representative will be sought but the decision on whether an oral hearing is needed lies with the panel chairman. (3) At oral hearings, panel members, legal representatives, witnesses and victims may be allowed to undertake video/telephone links from home to try to avoid delay to hearings. (4) If one panel member cannot attend owing to coronavirus then the hearing should proceed wherever possible. (5) More cases will be concluded by a single panel member. See also: Parole Board, 'Further guidance to members' (1/4/20)
- Parole Board guidance. Parole Board, 'Further guidance to members' (1/4/20) — (1) A panel can now make these decisions at MCA (Member Case Assessment): (a) to release or recommend transfer to open conditions in appropriate cases on the papers; (b) to refuse release or decline transfer to open conditions in appropriate cases on the papers; (c) to direct a case to an oral hearing. (2) Members have the option to expand the panel if they wish. (3) The guidance includes factors to consider when deciding whether an oral hearing is needed.
- Jury trials have been paused. Lord Chief Justice, 'Review of court arrangements due to COVID-19, message from the Lord Chief Justice' (23/3/20) — (1) This message notes that jury trials cannot be conducted remotely and states that all jury trials will be paused for a short time to enable appropriate precautions to be put in place (this topic is only of peripheral interest to MHLO readers so please check the Judiciary website or elsewhere for further updates). (2) In relation to family and civil courts it confirms that hearings requiring the physical presence of parties and their representatives and others should only take place if a remote hearing is not possible and if suitable arrangements can be made to ensure safety.
- Coronavirus jury trials guidance. Lord Chief Justice, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): Jury trials' (17/3/20) — (1) No new trial should start in the Crown Court unless it is expected to last for three days or fewer; (2) all cases estimated to last longer than three days listed to start before the end of April 2020 will be adjourned; (3) trials currently underway will generally proceed in the hope that they can be completed.
- Coronavirus Family Court guidance. President of the Family Divison, 'COVID 19: National Guidance for the Family Court' (19/3/20) — This guidance for all levels of the Family Court and in the High Court Family Division provides detailed guidance on remote hearings and states that "whilst the default position should be that, for the time being, all Family Court hearings should be undertaken remotely either via email, telephone, video or Skype, etc, where the requirements of fairness and justice require a court-based hearing, and it is safe to conduct one, then a court-based hearing should take place".
- Coronavirus court guidance on remote hearings. Lord Chief Justice, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): Message from the Lord Chief Justice to judges in the Civil and Family Courts' (19/3/20) — This message states: "The rules in both the civil and family courts are flexible enough to enable telephone and video hearings of almost everything. Any legal impediments will be dealt with. HMCTS are working urgently on expanding the availability of technology but in the meantime we have phones, some video facilities and Skype." It contains some outline guidance in relation to social distancing, litigants in person, trials and hearings involving live evidence, prioritising work, possession proceedings, injunctions and committal hearings, civil appeals, and family matters.
- Civil courts remote hearing protocol. Judiciary of England and Wales, 'Civil justice in England and Wales: Protocol regarding remote hearings' (20/3/20) — "This Protocol seeks to provide basic guidance as to the conduct of remote hearings."
- Tribunal coronavirus hygiene guidance. Senior President of Tribunals, 'Guidance for tribunal judges and members - COVID-19 measures' (23/3/20) — This guidance covers matters such as 2m separation and hand washing.
- Telephone and video hearing coronavirus guidance. HMCTS, 'HMCTS telephone and video hearings during coronavirus outbreak' (18/3/20) — This guidance on telephone and video technology has information under the following headings: (1) The decision to use telephone and video hearings; (2) Using existing technology and making new technology available; (3) The rules on using video and audio technology in courts; (4) Proposed legislation
- HMCTS and MOJ coronavirus guidance. HMCTS and MOJ, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): courts and tribunals planning and preparation' (published 13/3/20 and updated periodically) — Advice and guidance for court and tribunal users during the coronavirus outbreak. This Gov.uk page is updated regularly, contains its own information, and also contains links to many of the relevant documents.
- Remote hearing guidance for users. HMCTS, 'How to join telephone and video hearings during coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak' (8/4/20) — "Use this guide if you’ve been asked to join a hearing by telephone or video using BT MeetMe, Skype for Business or Cloud Video Platform (CVP) during the coronavirus outbreak."
- Department of Health coronavirus ethical guidance. DHSC, 'Responding to COVID-19: the ethical framework for adult social care' (19/3/20) — The introduction states: "Recognising increasing pressures and expected demand, it might become necessary to make challenging decisions on how to redirect resources where they are most needed and to prioritise individual care needs. This framework intends to serve as a guide for these types of decisions and reinforce that consideration of any potential harm that might be suffered, and the needs of all individuals, are always central to decision-making." There are eight values and principles: (1) respect; (2) reasonableness; (3) minimising harm; (4) inclusiveness; (5) accountability; (6) flexibility; (7) proportionality; (8) community. Under the "respect" heading it states that "those making decisions should ... where a person may lack capacity (as defined in the Mental Capacity Act), ensure that a person’s best interests and support needs are considered by those who are responsible or have relevant legal authority to decide on their behalf".
- Coronavirus hospital discharge service requirements. HM Government and NHS, 'COVID-19 Hospital Discharge Service Requirements' (19/3/20) — The covering letter states: "We face an unprecedented challenge in the weeks and months ahead to provide health and social care services that meet the needs of people affected by coronavirus (COVID-19)." The document summary states: "This document sets out the Hospital Discharge Service Requirements for all NHS trusts, community interest companies and private care providers of acute, community beds and community health services and social care staff in England, who must adhere to this from Thursday 19th March 2020. It also sets out requirements around discharge for health and social care commissioners (including Clinical Commissioning Groups and local authorities). ... Implementing these Service Requirements is expected to free up to at least 15,000 beds by Friday 27th March, with discharge flows maintained after that." In Annex A (The Discharge to Assess Model) the MCA is mentioned: "Duties under the Mental Capacity Act 2005 still apply during this period. If a person is suspected to lack the relevant mental capacity to make the decisions about their ongoing care and treatment, a capacity assessment should be carried out before decision about their discharge is made. Where the person is assessed to lack the relevant mental capacity and a decision needs to be made then there must be a best interest decision made for their ongoing care in line with the usual processes. If the proposed arrangements amount to a deprivation of liberty, Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards in care homes arrangements and orders from the Court of Protection for community arrangements still apply but should not delay discharge."
- CQC letter to providers about coronavirus. CQC, 'Routine inspections suspended in response to coronavirus outbreak' (16/3/20) — The CQC has written to all registered health and social care providers stating that inspections will stop from 16/3/20 (except in a very small number of cases when there is concern about harm), asking to be notified within 24 hours of any suspected or known case or outbreak of COVID-19, and stating: "We encourage everyone to act in the best interests of the health of the people they serve, with the top priority the protection of life. We encourage you to use your discretion and act in the best way you see fit." (emphasis in original)
- Coronavirus guidance for psychiatrists. Royal College of Psychiatrists, 'Legal matters - COVID-19 guidance for clinicians' (March 2020, updated periodically) — This contains information under the following headings: (1) Emergency legislation and the Mental Health Act - not yet in force; (2) Update on the operation of Mental Health Tribunals; (3) Changes to SOAD procedures.
- CQC coronavirus procedure for SOADs. Care Quality Commission, 'COVID-19: Interim Methodology for Second Opinions' (Dear Colleague letter, 20/3/20) — The summary stated in the letter is: "(1) We are asking mental health services to provide a summary of the patient’s current issues to CQC when submitting a second opinion request, which SOADs will use instead of visiting the hospital to examine care records. (2) Consultations with professionals, including with the responsible clinician, will be undertaken by telephone or video (Skype or Microsoft teams). (3) Following telephone consultations, we will ask services to support patients who agree to speak with SOADs to have access to telephones or technology to support a video call with the SOAD. (4) SOADs will not be asked to post original copies of certificates. We encourage services to accept electronic copies of certificates and act on that. The Government may lift the requirement for a paper copy, and we will issue further communications once this is confirmed."
- Guidance on learning disability and autism. NHS, 'Clinical guide for front line staff to support the management of patients with a learning disability, autism or both during the coronavirus pandemic - relevant to all clinical specialities' (ref 001559, v1, 24/3/20) — The Overview states: "People with a learning disability have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than the general population and die prematurely. At least 41% of them die from respiratory conditions. They have a higher prevalence of asthma and diabetes, and of being obese or underweight in people; all these factors make them more vulnerable to coronavirus. There is evidence that people with autism also have higher rates of health problems throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and that this may result in elevated risk of early mortality". The following key points are discussed: (1) Be aware of diagnostic overshadowing; (2) Pay attention to healthcare passports; (3) Listen to parents/carers; (4) Make reasonable adjustments; (5) Communication; (6) Understanding behavioural responses to illness/pain/discomfort; (7) Mental Capacity Act; (8) Ask for specialist support and advice if necessary; (9) Mental wellbeing and emotional distress.
- AMHP coronavirus guidance. BASW, 'Information and support for AMHPs, AMHP leads and Principal SWs on the role of AMHPs during the Covid-19 pandemic' (25/3/20) — The introduction to this 11-page document states: "This information has been prepared by BASW, with support from the Approved Mental Health Professional Leads Network and the Chief Social Workers office to provide up to date information on the AMHP role as the country responds to the Covid 19 pandemic." This is version 1. Check the BASW website for updates.
- Coronavirus mental health law changes. Hannah Taylor, 'Coronavirus Act 2020 - Changes for Mental Health' (Bevan Brittan, 1/4/20) — This web page sets out the proposed changes to the MHA in table format. It then gives some information under the following headings: (1) What about potentially infectious persons in the mental health context? (2) Patients who refuse to self-isolate; (3) How should public authorities be preparing for the changes? (a) Communication; (b) Environmental preparation; (c) Informing staff; (d) Training and guidance; (e) Alternative arrangements; (f) Statutory forms.
- Care Act "easements". DHSC, 'Care Act easements: guidance for local authorities' (1/4/20) — "This guidance sets out how Local Authorities can use the new Care Act easements, created under the Coronavirus Act 2020, to ensure the best possible care for people in our society during this exceptional period." The first sentences of the changes (which are each followed by "however"-type sentences) are: (1) Local Authorities will not have to carry out detailed assessments of people’s care and support needs in compliance with pre-amendment Care Act requirements. (2) Local Authorities will not have to carry out financial assessments in compliance with pre-amendment Care Act requirements. (3) Local Authorities will not have to prepare or review care and support plans in line with the pre-amendment Care Act provisions. (4) The duties on Local Authorities to meet eligible care and support needs, or the support needs of a carer, are replaced with a power to meet needs.
- Support for adult social care providers. CQC, 'CQC sets out next steps to support adult social care during the COVID-19 pandemic' (15/4/20) — This document deals with (1) Personal Protective Equipment; (2) coronavirus testing procedures for staff; (3) statistics (from this week, death notifications collected from providers will include whether the person had suspected or confirmed COVID-19); (4) information gathering (data on coronavirus pressures from services providing care in people's own homes will now be collected).
- Complaints procedure. CQC, 'CQC has made changes to Mental Health Act complaints process' (11/5/20) — The CQC are prioritising MHA complaints from or about currently-detained patients; other complaints "will be reviewed, but may be paused during the coronavirus outbreak".
- Coronavirus prison transfer guidance. HMPPS and NHS, 'Prison transfers and remissions to and from mental health inpatient hospitals in relation to COVID-19' (28/4/20) — The headings are: (1) Context and principles; (2) Protocol for the pathway; (2.1) Referral; (2.2) Assessment; (2.3) Requires transfer and detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA); (2.4) Remissions from mental health hospital to prison; (3) Contacts for national escalation (if required); (4) Useful resources and links.
- ASC winter plan. DHSC, 'Adult social care: our COVID-19 winter plan 2020 to 2021' (18/9/20) — "Here we set out the key elements of national support available for the social care sector for winter 2020 to 2021, as well as the main actions to take for local authorities, NHS organisations, and social care providers, including in the voluntary and community sector."
- Annual CQC report on MHA. CQC, 'Monitoring the Mental Health Act in 2019/20: The Mental Health Act in the COVID-19 pandemic' (26/11/20) — "This annual report on our monitoring of the Mental Health Act (MHA) puts a specific focus on the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on patients detained under the MHA, and on the services that care for and treat them."
Various resources relating to the Coronavirus Act 2020 can be found on that Act's page.
- Legislation amending MHA 1983 • Coronavirus legislation. Coronavirus Act 2020 — This Act, among other things, amends the MHA 1983 in light of the coronavirus pandemic. The Act is in force on 25/3/20, although s10 and schedules 8-11 (amendments to the MHA and NI/Scottish equivalents) will commence on a date to be specified in regulations. The paragraphs of schedule 8 relating to "Constitution and proceedings of the Mental Health Review Tribunal for Wales" came into force on 27/3/20.
In addition, here is some other relevant legislation:
- Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984
- Civil Contingencies Act 2004
- Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020 - Made under the 1984 Act
- Tribunal Procedure (Coronavirus) (Amendment) Rules 2020
- Coronavirus Act 2020 (Commencement No 1) (Wales) Regulations 2020
Many of these pages are updated regularly:
- Gov.uk website, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): what you need to do'
- Courts and Tribunals Judiciary: Court of Protection: Guidance (COVID-19)
- Courts and Tribunals Judiciary: Coronavirus (COVID-19) advice and guidance
- Gov.uk, 'HMCTS daily operational summary on courts and tribunals during coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak'
- Law in the Time of Corona. This blog from Kings Chambers is aimed at the legal and business community.
- Crimeline, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): Guidance'. Aimed at criminal lawyers.
- Transparency Project, 'COVID-19 and family courts: Links in one place to new arrangements'. Aimed at family (and COP) lawyers.
- Legal Action Group, 'Updates on the COVID-19 crisis' (25/3/20)
- RCPsych, 'Patient engagement - COVID-19 guidance for clinicians' (March 2020, updated periodically)
- RCpsych, 'Key topics: COVID-19'
- Edge Training, 'COVID-19 Related Resources for Health & Social Care Professionals'
- British Association of Social Workers, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19) BASW updates'
- NHS: Mental health, learning disabilities and autism: Guidance