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Category

LPA cases - substitute attorneys


The old category structure used on this page is comprehensive as it contains every relevant case. The new database structure was introduced in 2019. It is more potentially useful than the old categorisation system: it includes all cases since January 2017, but only a minority of older cases: see Special:Drilldown/Cases. The pages below are initially ordered according to the dates on which they were added to the site (most recent first). The order can be changed by clicking on the symbol beside a column heading: click on the symbol beside "Page and summary" for alphabetical order; click beside "Categories" for the order in which the cases were reported. Click on the arrow symbol again to reverse the order. Click on a page name to view the relevant page. Asterisks mark those cases which have been added to the new database structure.

Case and summary Date added Categories
* LPA attorney as substituted personal representative Whittaker v Hancock & Ors [2018] EWHC 3478 (Ch)"The claimant has brought a claim under section 50 of the Administration of Justice Act 1985 to be appointed as substitute personal representative of the estate of John Parker in place of the second defendant, her mother, and for a caveat entered by the third defendant on 20 July 2016 to be removed. ... The third defendant is the deceased's daughter and opposes the claim. ... In a statement accompanying the Will, signed by the deceased and witnessed by a legal secretary the deceased explains that he has made no provision for the third defendant ... On 20 July 2016 the third defendant caused a caveat to be entered. She subsequently entered an appearance to the claimant's warning asserting that the 2003 Will may be invalid due to the deceased lacking testamentary capacity, being subject to undue influence and want of knowledge and approval. ... Mr Devereux-Cooke submits that I should make an order appointing the claimant as substitute personal representative for the second defendant. The claimant is the attorney for the second defendant, the LPA having been registered on 16 January 2014. The second defendant cannot consent to the claim as she lacks capacity. The first defendant does not oppose the claim. ... It is a general LPA in respect of property and financial affairs that is in wide terms enabling the claimant, as attorney, to make decisions about the second defendant's property and financial affairs. There are no conditions or restrictions specified in the instrument. ... It is also relevant that the second defendant is the sole beneficiary under the 2003 will. She is in a different position to a case where there are a number of beneficiaries. ... I accept Mr Devereux-Cooke's analysis that the claimant has standing to bring this claim under section 50. If I am wrong in my analysis I consider that the position could be remedied by adding the second defendant as a claimant and appointing the current claimant as her litigation friend. I also accept Mr Devereux-Cooke's analysis of rules 31 and 35 of the Non-Contentious Probate Rules 1987 and would have been prepared to treat the claim as including this as an alternative legal route, had it been necessary. ... I consider that in order for the deceased's estate to be administered it is necessary to substitute the claimant as personal representative in place of the second defendant." 2019‑02‑03 22:41:23 2018 cases, Cases, Judgment available on Bailii, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, Testamentary capacity cases


Miles v The Public Guardian [2015] EWHC 2960 (Ch), [2015] MHLO 139 — "I have before me two appeals from decisions of Senior Judge Lush sitting in the Court of Protection, one in a case called Re Miles and one in a case called Re Beattie in both of which he was concerned with lasting powers of attorney either for property and financial affairs or for health and welfare matters. In each case the former power of attorney had been drafted by the same solicitor and contained provisions which the Judge was asked to rule on, as to whether they were effective." 2016‑10‑07 22:17:38 2015 cases, Judgment available on Bailii, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No summary, Transcript


Public Guardian v Miles [2014] EWCOP 40, [2014] MHLO 105 — "This is an application by the Public Guardian for the court to determine the validity of a provision in a Lasting Power of Attorney... The question I am required to answer is whether the donor of an LPA can appoint more than one attorney to act jointly with survivorship by expressly re-appointing the continuing attorney or attorneys." 2014‑11‑04 21:37:45 2014 cases, Judgment available on Bailii, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No summary, Transcript


Re Boff [2013] MHLO 88 (LPA)The donor of a Lasting Power of Attorney cannot appoint a replacement attorney to succeed another replacement attorney. 2013‑09‑13 19:55:34 2013 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Goodwin [2013] MHLO 86 (LPA)The donor appointed three attorneys and two replacements. Regarding the replacements, she directed that if one ceased to act the other could act alone, and added: "She should also make every effort to find one or two replacement attorneys to take over her responsibilities in the event of her own death, or if she no longer has the mental capacity to carry on, so that there is a continuing 'Lasting Power of Attorney' in place during the donor's lifetime." On the application of the Public Guardian this provision was severed on the ground that section 10(8)(a) of the MCA invalidates any provision in an LPA giving an attorney power to appoint a substitute or successor. [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2013‑09‑07 22:39:42 2013 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Martin [2013] MHLO 21 (LPA)The donor appointed two primary attorneys, A and B, to act jointly and severally, and three replacement attorneys, C, D and E. He included a valid provision to the effect that the D should replace B if B was unable to act, and then directed as follows: "In the event of my first attorney being unable to continue, E should act as Assistant to C (1st Replacement Attorney), and in the event of C being unable to continue, he should assume the power of Attorney." On the application of the Public Guardian this provision was severed because (applying Re Baldwin, above) the MCA does not permit a replacement attorney to be replaced, nor is it possible to direct an attorney or replacement attorney to act as assistant to another attorney or replacement attorney. [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2013‑03‑26 23:48:47 2013 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Krajicek [2012] MHLO 95 (LPA)The donor made two LPAs appointing two attorneys, A and B, and two replacement attorneys, C and D, and directed them to act jointly for some decisions and jointly and severally for other decisions. She provided that "If either of the original attorneys is unable to act then C should step in. D is to step in if the second attorney is unable to act." On the application of the Public Guardian the provision was severed because it appeared to provide for the replacement attorney to act jointly with the survivor of the original attorneys, which was incompatible with the appointment of the attorneys to act jointly for some decisions. [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2012‑09‑30 19:22:02 2012 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re McGreen [2012] MHLO 62 (LPA)The donor appointed A as attorney and B as replacement attorney and then provided as follows on the A2 continuation sheet: "If my Replacement Attorney is no longer a partner in the firm of XYZ Solicitors, I appoint in his place a suitably qualified partner of that firm or firm which has succeeded that firm and carries on its practice, to be my Replacement Attorney." (Only A and B had signed Part Cs.) The Public Guardian applied for severance of the provision on the ground that it was not possible to appoint a replacement attorney to take over from a replacement attorney (see Re Baldwin, below, under the heading "Replacement for replacement attorney".) The court severed the provision for that reason and also for the following reason: "Section 19(2) of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 states that, in respect of the appointment of deputies, 'the court may appoint an individual by appointing the holder for the time being of a specified office or position'. However, there is no comparable provision in the Act that permits the donor of an LPA to appoint an office holder to be his or her attorney. Section 10(1) states that the donee of an LPA must be an individual who has reached 18 or, if the power relates only to the donor's property and affairs, either such an individual or a trust corporation." [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2012‑06‑23 13:24:27 2012 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Clare (2011) COP 8/9/11The donor made two LPAs, each appointing an attorney and a replacement attorney. In each she directed as follows: "My Attorney may at any time appoint a substitute to act as my Attorney and may revoke any appointment without giving a reason. Each appointment is to be in writing signed by my Attorney. Every substitute has full powers as my Attorney as if appointed by this Deed, except the power to appoint a substitute." On the application of the Public Guardian the provision was severed as being a plain breach of section 10(8)(a) of the MCA, which provides that an LPA cannot give the attorney power to appoint a substitute or successor. [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2011‑11‑30 21:48:37 2011 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Salter (2011) COP 18/8/11The donor appointed primary attorneys to act jointly in some matters and jointly and severally in others, and also appointed replacement attorneys. She then directed as follows: "For decisions where my attorneys must act jointly, replacement attorney 1 should replace attorney 1, when he is unable to act and replacement attorney 2 should replace attorney 2 when he is unable to act." On the application of the Public Guardian this provision was severed because the effect of one primary attorney ceasing to act would be that the other primary attorney could no longer act in the matters to be decided jointly, but the direction contemplated that the first replacement would act with the surviving primary attorney. [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2011‑09‑30 23:07:45 2011 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Druce (2011) COP 31/5/11The donor made LPAs appointing A and B as her attorneys, to act jointly, and C and D to be her replacement attorneys. She then imposed the following restriction: "Both C and D should jointly replace the first attorney who needs replacing so that on the first replacement there will be 3 acting attorneys. No further replacements will be needed." On the application of the Public Guardian the court severed the restriction. There is nothing in section 10(8)(b) of the MCA, which deals with the appointment of replacement attorneys, to displace the fundamental principle that the survivor of joint attorneys cannot act. Where one of the original joint attorneys can no longer act, the replacement(s) will step in and act alone, to the exclusion of the surviving original attorney. This ruling reflects what is stated to be the "better view" in paragraph 4.44 of Cretney and Lush on Lasting and Enduring Powers of Attorney (6th edition). [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2011‑09‑30 23:05:32 2011 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Brindley (2011) COP 11/5/11The donor appointed three attorneys, A, B and C, to act jointly and severally. She then imposed the following restriction: "C does not attain the age of 18 until 21.12.2012 upon which date along with A and B she will act jointly and severally as attorney." On the application of the Public Guardian the appointment of C was severed as invalid on the basis that it contravened section 10(1)(a) of the MCA. [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2011‑09‑30 23:02:51 2011 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Putt (2011) COP 22/3/11(1) Two LLP partners were appointed attorneys; the certificate provider, as an associate at the same firm, was ineligible to act; (2) A direction that 'My attorneys (or any of them) may delegate in writing any of his, her or their functions to any person and shall not be responsible for the default of that person (even if the delegation was not strictly necessary or expedient) provided that he, she or they took reasonable care in his, her or their selection and supervision' was 'not simply contrary but almost repugnant to the special relationship of personal obligation and faith that one might reasonably expect to exist between a donor and the attorney of an LPA'. 2011‑05‑26 20:07:42 2011 cases, Brief summary, Judgment available on MHLO, LPA cases - formalities, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, Neutral citation unknown or not applicable, Transcript


Re McKenna (2011) COP 1/2/11The donor purported to appoint a replacement attorney who, at the date the donor signed the instrument, was 16 years old. The donor added the following restriction; "My replacement attorney shall only act if she is over the age of 18." On the application of the Public Guardian the appointment of the replacement attorney was severed as it contravened section 10(1)(a) of the MCA 2005, which provided that an attorney must have reached 18. [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2011‑03‑18 18:51:26 2011 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Williams (2010) COP 1/12/10The donor appointed three attorneys to act jointly. She then added: "The attorneys are only to make decisions jointly and should any of the attorneys die within my lifetime I wish for their personal representative to take over as my attorney in their place." On the application of the Public Guardian the court severed this provision on the ground that section 10(8)(a) of the MCA provided that an LPA instrument could not give the attorney power to appoint a substitute or successor. [Note: The provision could also be viewed as incompatible with the nature of a joint appointment.] [OPG summary - LPA case.] 2011‑01‑07 20:05:06 2010 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Swift (2010) COP 30/3/10The donor had been appointed to act as attorney under LPAs made by his wife. In his own LPA for property and financial affairs he stated as follows: "In the event that I become incapacitated and am unable to take decisions in my role as Attorney to my wife, I appoint both my Attorneys as Guardians of my wife in order that they may, together, take decisions about her property and affairs." He included an equivalent provision in his LPA for health and welfare. On the application of the Public Guardian the court severed these provisions as being ineffective because the MCA does not permit an attorney to appoint a substitute or successor to himself. (OPG summary - LPA case.) 2010‑04‑07 21:58:31 2010 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript


Re Baldwin (2009) COP 14/5/09The donor appointed X as original attorney, Y as the replacement for X, and Z as the replacement for Y if Y was unable or unwilling to act. On the application of the Public Guardian the court directed the severance of the appointment of Z on the ground that the MCA does not permit a donor to appoint a person to take over as a second replacement attorney if the first replacement attorney starts to act and then becomes unable to act. (OPG summary.) 2009‑11‑29 22:02:13 2009 cases, Brief summary, Judgment does not exist, LPA cases - substitute attorneys, No transcript